New Concepts in Motor Learning and Training Related to Voice Rehabilitation Traditional motor learning theorists indicate that paying conscious attention to motor tasks can negatively affect performance. Implicit learning strategies have historically been preferred and recommended over explicit instruction. Recently, elite, skilled athletes and performers report the desire to maintain some level of conscious awareness to online bodily movements to increase ... Article
Article  |   July 03, 2018
New Concepts in Motor Learning and Training Related to Voice Rehabilitation
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Cari Tellis
    Speech-Language Pathology, Misericordia University, Dallas, PA
  • Disclosures
    Disclosures ×
  • Financial: Cari Tellis has no relevant financial interests to disclose.
    Financial: Cari Tellis has no relevant financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Cari Tellis has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.
    Nonfinancial: Cari Tellis has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Part 2
Article   |   July 03, 2018
New Concepts in Motor Learning and Training Related to Voice Rehabilitation
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, July 2018, Vol. 3, 56-67. doi:10.1044/persp3.SIG3.56
History: Received July 1, 2017 , Revised October 8, 2017 , Accepted October 11, 2017
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, July 2018, Vol. 3, 56-67. doi:10.1044/persp3.SIG3.56
History: Received July 1, 2017; Revised October 8, 2017; Accepted October 11, 2017

Traditional motor learning theorists indicate that paying conscious attention to motor tasks can negatively affect performance. Implicit learning strategies have historically been preferred and recommended over explicit instruction. Recently, elite, skilled athletes and performers report the desire to maintain some level of conscious awareness to online bodily movements to increase performance proficiency. This article explores the advantages and areas of continued research needed in applying these training principles to voice rehabilitation. Training should include certain key components to optimize online performance, including the integration of implicit and explicit instruction, utilization of a symbolic representation of the motor act, combination of action observation and motor imagery, and the ability to transfer between Type 1 (optimal, automatic) and Type 2 (optimal, controlled) processing. An integrated implicit–explicit approach to voice therapy applies these training principles to voice rehabilitation.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Misericordia University for their support of this research. Thank you also to the research team, Tia Spagnuolo, Erin Roberts, Danielle Spagnuolo, Allison McAllister, and Rebecca Santoleri, for their hard work and dedication. Cari Tellis is a certified master teacher and certified course instructor in the Estill Voice Training Method. Tellis does not receive any financial benefits or compensation from Estill Voice International.
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