The Effect of Real-Time Feedback Using a Smartwatch on the Clinical Behavior of Novice Student Clinicians The use of computer monitors to provide technology-based written feedback during clinical sessions, referred to as “bug-in-the-eye” (BITi) feedback, recently emerged in the literature with preliminary evidence to support its effectiveness (Carmel, Villatte, Rosenthal, Chalker & Comtois, 2015; Weck et al., 2016). This investigation employed a single-subject, sequential A-B design ... Article
Article  |   December 13, 2017
The Effect of Real-Time Feedback Using a Smartwatch on the Clinical Behavior of Novice Student Clinicians
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Courtney G. Scott
    Communication Disorders & Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology, Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, UT
  • Trina M. Becker
    Communication Disorders & Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL
  • Kenneth O. Simpson
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology, Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, UT
  • Disclosures
    Disclosures ×
  • Financial: Courtney G. Scott has no relevant financial interests to disclose. Trina M. Becker has no relevant financial interests to disclose. Kenneth O. Simpson has no relevant financial interests to disclose.
    Financial: Courtney G. Scott has no relevant financial interests to disclose. Trina M. Becker has no relevant financial interests to disclose. Kenneth O. Simpson has no relevant financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Courtney G. Scott has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose. Trina M. Becker has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose. Kenneth O. Simpson has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.
    Nonfinancial: Courtney G. Scott has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose. Trina M. Becker has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose. Kenneth O. Simpson has no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.×
Article Information
Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Professional Issues & Training / Part 2
Article   |   December 13, 2017
The Effect of Real-Time Feedback Using a Smartwatch on the Clinical Behavior of Novice Student Clinicians
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, December 2017, Vol. 2, 79-90. doi:10.1044/persp2.SIG11.79
History: Received April 7, 2017 , Revised June 1, 2017 , Accepted June 22, 2017
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, December 2017, Vol. 2, 79-90. doi:10.1044/persp2.SIG11.79
History: Received April 7, 2017; Revised June 1, 2017; Accepted June 22, 2017

The use of computer monitors to provide technology-based written feedback during clinical sessions, referred to as “bug-in-the-eye” (BITi) feedback, recently emerged in the literature with preliminary evidence to support its effectiveness (Carmel, Villatte, Rosenthal, Chalker & Comtois, 2015; Weck et al., 2016). This investigation employed a single-subject, sequential A-B design with two participants to observe the effects of implementing BITi feedback using a smartwatch on the clinical behavior of student clinicians (SCs). Baseline and treatment data on the stimulus-response-consequence (S-R-C) contingency completion rates of SCs were collected using 10 minute segments of recorded therapy sessions. All participants were students enrolled in a clinical practicum experience in a communication disorders and sciences (CDS) program. A celeration line, descriptive statistics, and stability band were used to analyze the data by slope, trend, and variability. Results demonstrated a significant correlative relationship between BITi feedback with a smartwatch and an increase in positive clinical behaviors. Based on qualitative interviews and exit rating scales, SCs reported BITi feedback was noninvasive and minimally distracting. Preliminary evidence suggests BITi feedback with a smartwatch may be an effective tool for providing real-time clinical feedback.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank our research assistant, Hailey Tellier, as well as all of the faculty, staff, and students at Eastern Illinois University and Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions who supported this investigation directly and indirectly.
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