Examination of Coaching Behaviors Used by Providers When Delivering Early Intervention via Telehealth to Families of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) states that infants and toddlers with disabilities, and their family members, are to receive family-centered early intervention (FCEI). This study investigated providers' use of FCEI strategies when intervention was delivered to young children who were deaf or hard of hearing via telehealth. ... Article
Article  |   August 10, 2017
Examination of Coaching Behaviors Used by Providers When Delivering Early Intervention via Telehealth to Families of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Arlene Stredler-Brown
    Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO
    Department of Education and Counselling Psychology and Special Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
  • Disclosures
    Disclosures ×
  • Financial: Arlene Stredler-Brown has no relevant financial interests to disclose.
    Financial: Arlene Stredler-Brown has no relevant financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Portions of this data were previously presented in a variety of conferences and seminars from 2015–2016.
    Nonfinancial: Portions of this data were previously presented in a variety of conferences and seminars from 2015–2016.×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Special Populations / Early Identification & Intervention / Telepractice & Computer-Based Approaches / Part 1
Article   |   August 10, 2017
Examination of Coaching Behaviors Used by Providers When Delivering Early Intervention via Telehealth to Families of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, August 2017, Vol. 2, 25-42. doi:10.1044/persp2.SIG9.25
History: Received October 24, 2016 , Revised June 19, 2017 , Accepted July 21, 2017
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, August 2017, Vol. 2, 25-42. doi:10.1044/persp2.SIG9.25
History: Received October 24, 2016; Revised June 19, 2017; Accepted July 21, 2017

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) states that infants and toddlers with disabilities, and their family members, are to receive family-centered early intervention (FCEI). This study investigated providers' use of FCEI strategies when intervention was delivered to young children who were deaf or hard of hearing via telehealth. Telehealth is the use of telecommunication technologies to provide health services to people who are located at some distance from a provider. Telehealth also offers access to specialists and eliminates barriers of geography and weather. This study examined the frequency of occurrence of desired FCEI provider behaviors during telehealth sessions and contrasted them with the same behaviors used during in-person therapy. The use of FCEI provider behaviors was measured by observing and coding digitally recorded intervention sessions. Results demonstrated that selected FCEI provider behaviors occur in the telehealth condition more frequently than in the in-person condition reported in the literature. Three of the provider behaviors studied (i.e., observation, parent practice with feedback, and child behavior with provider feedback) were used more frequently in the telehealth condition. Direct instruction was used in similar amounts in both treatment conditions. This study affirms that the use of FCEI strategies may be enhanced through telehealth.

Acknowledgements
This research was conducted during a fellowship funded by the National Leadership Consortium on Sensory Disabilities (NLCSD), cooperative agreement H325V090001, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. The writing of the current manuscript was supported by NIHU01DC013529. The directors of programs providing family-centered early intervention to children who are DHH nationwide were generous in their willingness to contribute videos. Sixteen parents of young children agreed to share recorded therapy sessions. Two research advisors, John Luckner and Sandy Bowen, were involved in this study from start to finish. Trent Lalonde provided instruction for all statistical analyses.
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