Five Decades of Research Experience in Speech Anatomy and Physiology This report highlights some of the major developments in the area of speech anatomy and physiology drawing from the author's own research experience during his years at the University of Iowa and the University of Illinois. He has benefited greatly from mentors including Professors James Curtis, Kenneth Moll, and Hughlett ... Article
Free
Article  |   June 10, 2016
Five Decades of Research Experience in Speech Anatomy and Physiology
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • David P. Kuehn
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL
  • Disclosures
    Disclosures ×
  • Financial: David Kuehn has no financial interests to disclose.
    Financial: David Kuehn has no financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: This manuscript is a companion paper to the Zemlin Memorial Lecture given at the 2015 meeting of the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association
    Nonfinancial: This manuscript is a companion paper to the Zemlin Memorial Lecture given at the 2015 meeting of the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Special Populations / Professional Issues & Training / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Part 1
Article   |   June 10, 2016
Five Decades of Research Experience in Speech Anatomy and Physiology
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, June 2016, Vol. 1, 4-12. doi:10.1044/persp1.SIG5.4
History: Received February 1, 2016 , Revised March 2, 2016 , Accepted March 7, 2017
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, June 2016, Vol. 1, 4-12. doi:10.1044/persp1.SIG5.4
History: Received February 1, 2016; Revised March 2, 2016; Accepted March 7, 2017

This report highlights some of the major developments in the area of speech anatomy and physiology drawing from the author's own research experience during his years at the University of Iowa and the University of Illinois. He has benefited greatly from mentors including Professors James Curtis, Kenneth Moll, and Hughlett Morris at the University of Iowa and Professor Paul Lauterbur at the University of Illinois. Many colleagues have contributed to the author's work, especially Professors Jerald Moon at the University of Iowa, Bradley Sutton at the University of Illinois, Jamie Perry at East Carolina University, and Youkyung Bae at the Ohio State University. The strength of these researchers and their students bodes well for future advances in knowledge in this important area of speech science.

Origins of the Field of Speech Anatomy and Physiology
The study of human anatomy has had a very long history spanning across hundreds of years as there are records indicating that dissection of the human body dates back to the 3rd century BC in Egypt (Persaud, Loukas, & Tubbs, 2014). Andreas Vesalius, famous European anatomist born in Brussels in 1514, is often given credit as the founder of “modern” human anatomy. Compared to the broad area of whole-body anatomy, the study of anatomy for speech purposes is more recent and generally focused on the respiratory, laryngeal, and articulatory (upper airway) systems. The classic textbook authored by Professor Willard R. Zemlin was a catalyst in that area of investigation and the last edition, titled “Speech and Hearing Science: Anatomy and Physiology,” was published in 1998 as the 4th edition (Zemlin, 1998). The text draws heavily from Gray's Anatomy (Standring, 2016; now in its 41st edition) and other famous works but adds an important dimension, by providing extensive information in the area of speech and hearing.
Dissection has long been the practice for obtaining information about general anatomy as well as speech anatomy. In earlier years (prior to the 20th century), the practice of grave robbing (“body snatching”) was common among medical scholars and students in this country and many other countries, especially in Europe. Although fines and imprisonment were imposed on this “crime” the need for such basic information was so great over the years that it continued despite the fact that the consequences of doing so were well-known. It was not until early in the 20th century that human dissection became legal. Each state has a deeded bodies program in which individuals may donate their body to an Anatomical Gift association for medical education purposes. The forerunner of Anatomical Gift Associations, now prevalent is most states in this country, was the “Demonstrators Society in Chicago” established there in 1918. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was established in 1968 and revised in 2006 for the purpose of establishing more consistent procedures among the states for donating one's body (National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 2006).
Other methods of studying human anatomy include clinical studies in which damaged or diseased structures are studied for underlying causes in relation to normal structures. An example of this involves ablation of a body part as a medical necessity and that body part or the parts remaining are studied. Sometimes, rather large areas of the body must be removed because of advanced carcinoma such as ablation of much of the maxilla on one side enabling direct observation of the soft palate and upper pharynx (Calnan, 1954).
The study of speech physiology has a more recent history compared to speech anatomy owing to the greater need for electronic devices for the former which are not essential for more simple structural observation. That is, electronic devices essentially were not readily available prior to the mid-20th century. Figure 1 lists instrumentation that has been used for the study of speech physiology. These are often used specifically for respiration, phonation (laryngeal activity), or articulation although some can be used to study any of these three systems. For example, electromyography (EMG) can be used for all three areas of investigation although overlapping of muscles is a significant challenge for interpretation of the contribution of individual muscles especially for the respiratory muscles and the tongue. Green (2014)  demonstrated that in the 1960s and 1970s many studies were published using motion x-ray (cinefluorography) methods. Strain gauge procedures were used extensively in the 1980s and 1990s. Currently, many studies of speech movement make use of electromagnetic articulograpy (EMA) and optical/video procedures. Green (2015)  has provided a comprehensive review of the literature regarding techniques for studying speech movements.
Figure 1.

Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.

 Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.
Figure 1.

Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.

×
In the Zemlin Memorial Lecture, for which this report is a companion, the author drew heavily from his own research experience in his earlier career at the University of Iowa and his later career at the University of Illinois. Examples of research efforts and projects will be provided in the next two sections, in a somewhat chronologic manner, that tend to reflect the development of the field of speech science over a span of several decades from the 1960s to the present time.
The Iowa Years
Dissection studies have been very important in generating information not only of whole body anatomy but also in relation to a greater understanding of speech and hearing mechanisms. Barsoumian, Kuehn, Moon, and Canady (1998)  conducted a dissection study to gain a greater understanding of the tensor veli palatini muscle. It was found, in agreement with other studies, that the muscle consists of two bellies, the tensor veli palatini proper and the second belly, less commonly recognized, referred to as the dilatator tubae or more simply as the dilator tubae. The latter muscle is sometimes regarded as a portion of the tensor proper. It was found that the tensor proper attaches to the anterior one-third of the pterygoid hamulus thus, presumably, offering stabilization to the dilator portion. The dilator portion rounds the middle one-third of the hamulus without an attachment to it. This portion, therefore, could provide tension to the anterior velum as it inserts into that structure and also to provide an opening force for the Eustachian tube.
Dissection and Histology are often conducted as companion procedures in anatomical studies. The author and colleagues used these techniques in a number of studies for the purpose of investigating the muscles of the velopharyngeal area (Azzam & Kuehn, 1977; Kuehn & Azzam, 1978; Kuehn & Kahane, 1990; Kuehn & Moon, 2005). Kuehn & Azzam (1978)  combined x-ray images with dissection and histology in their investigation of the palatoglossus muscle and anterior faucial pillars. They found that in some cadaver specimens, the palatoglossus muscle is positioned relatively anteriorly in its velar attachment, which would be more favorable in assisting in tongue elevation. Conversely, in some specimens the muscle was positioned much more posteriorly in its velar attachment, which would be more favorable in relation to assisting in velar lowering but poorly situated to assist in tongue elevation. These anatomical findings help to explain the variable electromyographic (EMG) findings in which palatoglossus is active in velar lowering in some individuals and not in others.
Histologic studies are important not only in studying muscle characteristics, but also features of other tissue types as well, such as neuromuscular spindles. In a study investigating the presence of spindles in the velopharyngeal musculature, Kuehn, Templeton, and Maynard (1990)  found spindles in the tensor veli palatini and palatoglossus muscles, but not in the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, and palatopharyngeus. Subsequently, however, spindles of a smaller than usual size were found in the levator veli palatini muscle by Liss (1990) .
The author's PhD dissertation consisted of a cineradiographic study of vowel-to-consonant and consonant-to-vowel articulatory velocities (Kuehn & Moll, 1976). The filming speed was 150 frames per second, which enabled a frame-by-frame analysis of 6.7 msec. The results corroborated other studies which had found a positive relation between articulatory velocities and displacement. That is, the farther an articulator moves, the faster it tends to move for a given individual. This relation was extended across subjects in that the farther a structure such as the tongue tip moves for a given individual, the faster it tends to move when compared to the same articulator of another individual moving a shorter distance. In this regard, it appears that there is a fairly robust time constraint for speakers of a given language such that articulatory transitions must be accomplished within a certain time window to be recognized as a normal production. Thus, for a certain time interval, larger movements must be conducted at a faster rate, otherwise the result would be an abnormally long production interval.
Several other static and dynamic radiographic studies authored or co-authored by Kuehn were conducted at the University of Iowa on normal participants (Iglesias, Kuehn, & Morris, 1980; Kuehn, 1976; Kuehn & Dolan, 1975; Kuehn, Folkins, & Cutting, 1982; Kuehn, Reich, & Jordan, 1980; Seaver & Kuehn, 1980; Shaw, Folkins, & Kuehn, 1980; Zawadski & Kuehn, 1980). Also, studies involving subjects with impaired articulation also were conducted. As an example of this, Kuehn and Tomblin (1977)  using cineradiographic procedures for studying children with articulation disorders, found that those who exhibited w/r substitutions produced target positions for intended /r/ that were not differentiated from positions for /w/ productions. However, intended /r/ productions were produced with significantly greater variability, suggesting that /r/ production was emerging in the children's phonology even though the actual productions were perceived as being closer to /w/ phonemes.
Several EMG studies of the velopharyngeal muscles were conducted with colleagues at the University of Iowa, especially with Professor Jerald Moon (Kuehn, Folkins, & Cutting, 1982; Kuehn, Folkins, & Linville, 1988; Kuehn & Moon, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000; Kuehn, Moon, & Folkins, 1993; Moon, Kuehn, Chan, & Zhao, 2007; Seaver & Kuehn, 1980). Seaver and Kuehn (1980)  and Kuehn et al. (1982)  found that positioning of the velum during speech depends not only on activity of the levator veli palatini muscle, the major muscle of velar elevation, but also the interaction of that muscle with the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus muscles. Because the latter two provide opposing forces to velar elevation, the levator muscle must exert greater force to overcome that opposing force in achieving a given velar position, depending on the phoneme that is being produced.
Kuehn and Moon (1998)  combined a method of measuring levator veli palatini muscle activity with velopharyngeal closure force using a pressure sensitive inflated bulb positioned trans-nasally between the velum and posterior pharyngeal wall. It was found that, consistent with velar positioning studies, high vowels were produced with greater velopharyngeal closure force than low vowels. Closure force was greater for voiceless than for voiced consonants, but only for the male subjects and only within /i/ and /u/ contexts. Significant differences in closure force were not found between fricatives and stops. Kuehn, Moon, and colleagues also used the pressure bulb procedure to measure velopharyngeal fatigue effects in normal participants and those with surgically repaired cleft palate (Kuehn & Moon, 2000; Moon et al., 2007). It was found that levels of velopharyngeal closure force were much lower than those in speakers without cleft palate and all subjects with cleft palate showed greater muscle fatigue than those without cleft palate during speech tasks.
Combining information from both structure and function studies is important in developing biomechanical models to help simplify and understand complex mechanisms. Using known biomechanical properties of tissues based on previous histologic studies, Berry, Moon, and Kuehn (1999)  developed a finite element model of the velum in which movements were driven by simulations of three muscles, the levator veli palatini, palatoglossus, and palatopharyngeus. Projected movements of the modeled velum were observed to be very similar to velar movements observed in cineradiographic studies.
The Illinois Years
The teaching of anatomy and physiology is often a companion endeavor to research in these areas. In that regard, the author taught courses in anatomy and physiology of speech (speech science) for many years. Some of these courses had a large number of students (e.g., 120 or more). In using human cadavers, it is not practical to enable many students to observe the sequence of dissection leading up to stages, such as those stages to observe the abdominal and thoracic structures, the laryngeal structures, and articulatory structures. As an adjunct to this limitation, the author and his students used a procedure in which three-dimensional (3D) images of the sequence of dissection were made available to students who could view the 3D images on their own computers using inexpensive specialized goggles prior to the respective lab sessions (Perry, Kuehn, & Langlois, 2007).
Similarly, one's clinical involvement is often an integral part of a person's research program. The author developed a new therapy regimen that is used to treat hypernasality (Kuehn, 1991, 1997). The therapy procedure involves using a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to increase air pressure delivered via a nasal mask to the velopharyngeal area, thus providing resistance to the muscles of velopharyngeal closure during speech. This clinical procedure has led to several research studies (Kuehn et al., 2002; Kuehn & Moon, 1994, 1995, 2000; Moon et al., 2007). Kuehn et al. (1993)  showed that increasing nasally delivered air pressure leads to a concomitant increase of muscle activity in the major muscle of velopharyngeal closure, the levator veli palatini muscle, thereby facilitating strengthening of that muscle with repeated sessions of the CPAP application. Subsequently, Kuehn et al. (2002)  demonstrated a net overall reduction in hypernasality among their subjects with repaired cleft palate following 8 weeks of CPAP therapy.
Much of the author's research at the University of Illinois has focused on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the anatomy and physiology of mainly the velopharyngeal region in normal individuals and those born with cleft palate. The primary advantage of MRI over other imaging procedures is that it is the only procedure that allows visualization of muscles, as distinct from other tissues including soft tissue structures, in living participants. Early MRI work was conducted in collaboration with Professor Paul Lauterbur at the University of Illinois who published the first magnetic resonance image (Lauterbur, 1973) and received a Nobel prize in Medicine/Physiology in 2003 for his pioneering work in MRI. These early MRI investigations were accomplished using cadaveric specimens and later several studies were conducted involving live subjects ranging from infants to older individuals with and without cleft palate (Ettema, Kuehn, Perlman, & Alperin, 2002; Ha, Kuehn, Cohen, & Alperin, 2007; Kuehn, Ettema, Goldwasser, & Barkmeier, 2004; Kuehn, Ettema, Goldwasser, Barkmeier, & Wachtel, 2001). More recently, within the last 8 years, many MRI studies focused mainly on the velopharyngeal mechanism have been conducted in collaboration with the author's colleagues, Professors Jamie Perry and Bradley Sutton and others including Professor Youkyung Bae (see Appendix A).
Table 1 summarizes the current magnetic resonance imaging state-of-the-art parameters on the campus of the University of Illinois. It is likely that all of these parameters will improve in the future with further advances in MRI technology. In addition, greater understanding of the interaction between brain function and peripheral control of speech structures likely will be realized with future development of MRI procedures. At this time, initial work on this campus has begun to combine brain images obtained with fMRI and structural MRI to visualize speech structures and muscles. One of the goals is to track neural motor tracts from the motor cortex to target speech muscles during speech production. In addition, we plan to make use of this technology to gain a greater understanding of clinical challenges including (a) structural disorders such as cleft lip/palate and oral cancer, (b) muscle issues such as muscular dystrophy and muscle changes with age, (c) functional neuroimaging for changes such as post-stroke and the aging processes, and (d) neuromuscular coupling especially for multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. All of these goals appear to be reachable with continued technological developments and cooperative research efforts involving dedicated clinicians and scientists.
Table 1. MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.×
Field of view 24 X 24 X 5 cm
Spatial resolution 2 X 2 X 5 mm
Temporal resolution 166 frames per second for full 3D vocal tract scan
Alignment of audio recording in the scanner Fiber-optic noise cancelling microphone
Capacity ~100,000 3D volumes of images acquired in 10 minutes
Motion tracking Automatic for interpretation of large datasets
Table 1. MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.×
Field of view 24 X 24 X 5 cm
Spatial resolution 2 X 2 X 5 mm
Temporal resolution 166 frames per second for full 3D vocal tract scan
Alignment of audio recording in the scanner Fiber-optic noise cancelling microphone
Capacity ~100,000 3D volumes of images acquired in 10 minutes
Motion tracking Automatic for interpretation of large datasets
×
References
Azzam, N. A., & Kuehn, D. P. (1977). The morphology of musculus uvulae. Cleft Palate Journal, 14, 78–87. [PubMed]
Azzam, N. A., & Kuehn, D. P. (1977). The morphology of musculus uvulae. Cleft Palate Journal, 14, 78–87. [PubMed]×
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., Conway, C. A., & Sutton, B. P. (2011). Real-time magnetic resonance imaging of velopharyngeal activities with simultaneous speech recordings. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 48, 695–707. [Article] [PubMed]
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., Conway, C. A., & Sutton, B. P. (2011). Real-time magnetic resonance imaging of velopharyngeal activities with simultaneous speech recordings. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 48, 695–707. [Article] [PubMed]×
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., Conway, C. A., Sutton, B. P., & Perry, J. L. (2011). Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging of velopharyngeal structures. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 1538–1545. [Article]
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., Conway, C. A., Sutton, B. P., & Perry, J. L. (2011). Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging of velopharyngeal structures. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 1538–1545. [Article] ×
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2016). Magnetic resonance imaging of velar muscle tissue distribution in healthy adults. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 53, 38–46. [Article] [PubMed]
Bae, Y., Kuehn, D. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2016). Magnetic resonance imaging of velar muscle tissue distribution in healthy adults. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 53, 38–46. [Article] [PubMed]×
Barsoumian, R., Kuehn, D. P., Moon, J. B., & Canady, J. W. (1998). An anatomic study of the tensor veli palatini and dilatator tubae muscles in relation to eustachian tube and velar function. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 35, 101–110. [Article] [PubMed]
Barsoumian, R., Kuehn, D. P., Moon, J. B., & Canady, J. W. (1998). An anatomic study of the tensor veli palatini and dilatator tubae muscles in relation to eustachian tube and velar function. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 35, 101–110. [Article] [PubMed]×
Berry, D. A., Moon, J. B., & Kuehn, D. P. (1999). A finite element model of the soft palate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 36, 217–223. [Article] [PubMed]
Berry, D. A., Moon, J. B., & Kuehn, D. P. (1999). A finite element model of the soft palate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 36, 217–223. [Article] [PubMed]×
Calnan, J. (1954). The error of Gustav Passavant. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 13, 275–289. [Article]
Calnan, J. (1954). The error of Gustav Passavant. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 13, 275–289. [Article] ×
Ettema, S. L., Kuehn, D. P., Perlman, A. L., & Alperin, N. (2002). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle during speech. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 39, 130–144. [Article] [PubMed]
Ettema, S. L., Kuehn, D. P., Perlman, A. L., & Alperin, N. (2002). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle during speech. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 39, 130–144. [Article] [PubMed]×
Fu, M., Christodoulou, A. J., Naber, A. T., Kuehn, D. P., Liang, Z. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2011). High-frame-rate multislice speech imaging with sparse sampling of (k, t)-space. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 1, 12.
Fu, M., Christodoulou, A. J., Naber, A. T., Kuehn, D. P., Liang, Z. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2011). High-frame-rate multislice speech imaging with sparse sampling of (k, t)-space. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 1, 12.×
Fu, M., Zhao, B., Carignan, C., Shosted, R. K., Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P. , … Sutton, B. P. (2015). High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with joint low-rank and sparsity constraints. Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 73, 1820–1832. [Article]
Fu, M., Zhao, B., Carignan, C., Shosted, R. K., Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P. , … Sutton, B. P. (2015). High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with joint low-rank and sparsity constraints. Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 73, 1820–1832. [Article] ×
Fu, M., Zhao, B., Holtrop, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Liang, Z. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2012). High-frame-rate full-vocal-tract imaging based on the partial separability model and volumetric navigation. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 1, 4269.
Fu, M., Zhao, B., Holtrop, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Liang, Z. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2012). High-frame-rate full-vocal-tract imaging based on the partial separability model and volumetric navigation. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 1, 4269.×
Green, J. R. (2014, November). Mouth matters: Scientific and clinical applications of speech movement analysis. Zemlin Memorial Lecture presented at the annual meeting of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association, Orlando, FL.
Green, J. R. (2014, November). Mouth matters: Scientific and clinical applications of speech movement analysis. Zemlin Memorial Lecture presented at the annual meeting of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association, Orlando, FL.×
Green, J. R. (2015). Mouth matters: Scientific and clinical applications of speech movement analysis. Perspectives on Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, 25, 6–16. [Article]
Green, J. R. (2015). Mouth matters: Scientific and clinical applications of speech movement analysis. Perspectives on Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, 25, 6–16. [Article] ×
Ha, S., Kuehn, D. P., Cohen, M., & Alperin, N. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle in speakers with repaired cleft palate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 494–505. [Article] [PubMed]
Ha, S., Kuehn, D. P., Cohen, M., & Alperin, N. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle in speakers with repaired cleft palate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 494–505. [Article] [PubMed]×
Iglesias, A., Kuehn, D. P., & Morris, H. L. (1980). Simultaneous assessment of pharyngeal wall and velar displacement for selected speech sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23, 429–446. [Article] [PubMed]
Iglesias, A., Kuehn, D. P., & Morris, H. L. (1980). Simultaneous assessment of pharyngeal wall and velar displacement for selected speech sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23, 429–446. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P. (1976). A cineradiographic investigation of velar movement variables in two normals. Cleft Palate Journal, 13, 88–103. [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P. (1976). A cineradiographic investigation of velar movement variables in two normals. Cleft Palate Journal, 13, 88–103. [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P. (1991). New therapy for treating hypernasal speech using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 88, 959–966. [Article]
Kuehn, D. P. (1991). New therapy for treating hypernasal speech using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 88, 959–966. [Article] ×
Kuehn, D. P. (1997). The development of a new technique for treating hypernasality: CPAP. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 5–8. [Article]
Kuehn, D. P. (1997). The development of a new technique for treating hypernasality: CPAP. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 5–8. [Article] ×
Kuehn, D. P., & Azzam, N. A. (1978). Anatomical characteristics of palatoglossus and the anterior faucial pillar. Cleft Palate Journal, 15, 349–359. [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Azzam, N. A. (1978). Anatomical characteristics of palatoglossus and the anterior faucial pillar. Cleft Palate Journal, 15, 349–359. [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Dolan, K. D. (1975). A tomographic technique of assessing lateral pharyngeal wall displacement. Cleft Palate Journal, 12, 200–210. [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Dolan, K. D. (1975). A tomographic technique of assessing lateral pharyngeal wall displacement. Cleft Palate Journal, 12, 200–210. [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Ettema, S. L., Goldwasser, M. S., & Barkmeier, J. C. (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle before and after primary palatoplasty. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 41, 584–592. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Ettema, S. L., Goldwasser, M. S., & Barkmeier, J. C. (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator veli palatini muscle before and after primary palatoplasty. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 41, 584–592. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Ettema, S. L., Goldwasser, M. S., Barkmeier, J. C., & Wachtel, J. M. (2001). Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of occult submucous cleft palate. Cleft Palate- Craniofacial Journal, 38, 421–431. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Ettema, S. L., Goldwasser, M. S., Barkmeier, J. C., & Wachtel, J. M. (2001). Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of occult submucous cleft palate. Cleft Palate- Craniofacial Journal, 38, 421–431. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Folkins, J. W., & Cutting, C. B. (1982). Relationships between muscle activity and velar position. Cleft Palate Journal, 19, 25–35. [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Folkins, J. W., & Cutting, C. B. (1982). Relationships between muscle activity and velar position. Cleft Palate Journal, 19, 25–35. [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Folkins, J. W., & Linville, R. N. (1988). An electromyographic study of the musculus uvulae. Cleft Palate Journal, 25, 348–355. [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Folkins, J. W., & Linville, R. N. (1988). An electromyographic study of the musculus uvulae. Cleft Palate Journal, 25, 348–355. [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Imrey, P. B., Tomes, L., Jones, D. L., O'Gara, M. M., Seaver, E. J., … Wachtel, J. M. (2002). Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of hypernasality. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 39, 267–276. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Imrey, P. B., Tomes, L., Jones, D. L., O'Gara, M. M., Seaver, E. J., … Wachtel, J. M. (2002). Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of hypernasality. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 39, 267–276. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Kahane, J. C. (1990). Histologic study of the normal human adult soft palate. Cleft Palate Journal, 27, 26–34. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Kahane, J. C. (1990). Histologic study of the normal human adult soft palate. Cleft Palate Journal, 27, 26–34. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moll, K. L. (1976). A cineradiographic study of VC and CV articulatory velocities. Journal of Phonetics, 4, 303–320.
Kuehn, D. P., & Moll, K. L. (1976). A cineradiographic study of VC and CV articulatory velocities. Journal of Phonetics, 4, 303–320.×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1994). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intraoral air pressure variation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1260–1270. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1994). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intraoral air pressure variation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1260–1270. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1995). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intraoral air pressure variation in cleft palate subjects. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 32, 376–381. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1995). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intraoral air pressure variation in cleft palate subjects. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 32, 376–381. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1998). Velopharyngeal closure force and levator veli palatini activation levels in varying phonetic contexts. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 51–62. [Article]
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (1998). Velopharyngeal closure force and levator veli palatini activation levels in varying phonetic contexts. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 51–62. [Article] ×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (2000). Induced fatigue effects on velopharyngeal closure force. Journal of Speech, Language, Hearing Research, 43, 486–500. [Article]
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (2000). Induced fatigue effects on velopharyngeal closure force. Journal of Speech, Language, Hearing Research, 43, 486–500. [Article] ×
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (2005). Histologic study of intravelar structures in normal human adult specimens. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 42, 481–489. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Moon, J. B. (2005). Histologic study of intravelar structures in normal human adult specimens. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 42, 481–489. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Moon, J. B., & Folkins, J. W. (1993). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intranasal air pressure variation. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 30, 361–368. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Moon, J. B., & Folkins, J. W. (1993). Levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to intranasal air pressure variation. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 30, 361–368. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Reich, A., & Jordan, J. E. (1980). A cineradiographic study of chin marker positioning: Implications for the strain gauge transduction of jaw movement. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 67, 1825–1827. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Reich, A., & Jordan, J. E. (1980). A cineradiographic study of chin marker positioning: Implications for the strain gauge transduction of jaw movement. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 67, 1825–1827. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., Templeton, P. J., & Maynard, J. A. (1990). Muscle spindles in the velopharyngeal musculature of humans. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 488–493. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., Templeton, P. J., & Maynard, J. A. (1990). Muscle spindles in the velopharyngeal musculature of humans. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 488–493. [Article] [PubMed]×
Kuehn, D. P., & Tomblin, J. B. (1977). A cineradiographic investigation of children's w/r substitutions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 42, 462–473. [Article] [PubMed]
Kuehn, D. P., & Tomblin, J. B. (1977). A cineradiographic investigation of children's w/r substitutions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 42, 462–473. [Article] [PubMed]×
Lauterbur, P. C. (1973). Image formation by induced interaction: Examples employing nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature, 242, 190–191. [Article]
Lauterbur, P. C. (1973). Image formation by induced interaction: Examples employing nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature, 242, 190–191. [Article] ×
Liss, J. (1990). Muscle spindles in the human levator veli palatini and palatoglossus muscles. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 736–746. [Article] [PubMed]
Liss, J. (1990). Muscle spindles in the human levator veli palatini and palatoglossus muscles. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 736–746. [Article] [PubMed]×
Moon, J. B., Kuehn, D. P., Chan, G., & Zhao, L. (2007). Induced velopharyngeal fatigue effects in speakers with repaired palatal clefts. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 251–260. [Article] [PubMed]
Moon, J. B., Kuehn, D. P., Chan, G., & Zhao, L. (2007). Induced velopharyngeal fatigue effects in speakers with repaired palatal clefts. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 251–260. [Article] [PubMed]×
National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (2006). Revised uniform anatomical gift act. Retrieved from http://www.uniformlaws.org/shared/docs/anatomical_gift/uaga_final_aug09.pdf
National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (2006). Revised uniform anatomical gift act. Retrieved from http://www.uniformlaws.org/shared/docs/anatomical_gift/uaga_final_aug09.pdf ×
Perry, J. L., & Kuehn, D. P. (2007). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the levator veli palatini muscle in situ using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 421–423. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., & Kuehn, D. P. (2007). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the levator veli palatini muscle in situ using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 44, 421–423. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., & Kuehn, D. P. (2009). Magnetic resonance imaging and computer reconstruction of the velopharyngeal mechanism. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 20, 1739–1746. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., & Kuehn, D. P. (2009). Magnetic resonance imaging and computer reconstruction of the velopharyngeal mechanism. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 20, 1739–1746. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., & Langlois, R. (2007). Teaching anatomy and physiology using computer-based, stereoscopic images. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36(4), 18–23.
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., & Langlois, R. (2007). Teaching anatomy and physiology using computer-based, stereoscopic images. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36(4), 18–23.×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2013). Morphology of the levator veli palatini muscle using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 50, 64–75. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., & Sutton, B. P. (2013). Morphology of the levator veli palatini muscle using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 50, 64–75. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., & Gamage, J. K. (2014). Sexual dimorphism of the levator veli palatini muscle: An imaging study. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 51, 544–552. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., & Gamage, J. K. (2014). Sexual dimorphism of the levator veli palatini muscle: An imaging study. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 51, 544–552. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., Gamage, J. K., & Fang, J. K. (2016). Anthropometric analysis of the velopharynx and related craniometric dimensions in three adult populations using MRI. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 53(1), e1–e13. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., Gamage, J. K., & Fang, J. K. (2016). Anthropometric analysis of the velopharynx and related craniometric dimensions in three adult populations using MRI. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 53(1), e1–e13. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., Goldwasser, M. S., & Jerez, A. D. (2011). Craniometric and velopharyngeal assessment of infants with and without cleft palate. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 22, 499–503. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Sutton, B. P., Goldwasser, M. S., & Jerez, A. D. (2011). Craniometric and velopharyngeal assessment of infants with and without cleft palate. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 22, 499–503. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Wachtel, J. M., Bailey, J. S., & Luginbuhl, L. L. (2012). Using magnetic resonance imaging for early assessment of submucous cleft palate: A case report. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 49(4), e35–e41. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Kuehn, D. P., Wachtel, J. M., Bailey, J. S., & Luginbuhl, L. L. (2012). Using magnetic resonance imaging for early assessment of submucous cleft palate: A case report. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 49(4), e35–e41. [Article] [PubMed]×
Perry, J. L., Sutton, B. P., Kuehn, D. P., & Gamage, J. K. (2014). Using MRI for assessing velopharyngeal structures and function. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 51, 476–485. [Article] [PubMed]
Perry, J. L., Sutton, B. P., Kuehn, D. P., & Gamage, J. K. (2014). Using MRI for assessing velopharyngeal structures and function. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 51, 476–485. [Article] [PubMed]×
Persaud, T. V. N., Loukas, M., & Tubbs, R. S. (2014). A history of human anatomy (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Persaud, T. V. N., Loukas, M., & Tubbs, R. S. (2014). A history of human anatomy (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.×
Seaver, E. J., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). A cineradiographic and electromyographic investigation of velar positioning in non-nasal speech. Cleft Palate Journal, 17, 216–226. [PubMed]
Seaver, E. J., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). A cineradiographic and electromyographic investigation of velar positioning in non-nasal speech. Cleft Palate Journal, 17, 216–226. [PubMed]×
Shaw, R. L., Folkins, J. W., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). Comparison of methods for measuring velar position from lateral-view cineradiography. Cleft Palate Journal, 17, 326–329. [PubMed]
Shaw, R. L., Folkins, J. W., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). Comparison of methods for measuring velar position from lateral-view cineradiography. Cleft Palate Journal, 17, 326–329. [PubMed]×
Standring, S. (2016). Gray's anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Standring, S. (2016). Gray's anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.×
Sutton, B. P., Conway, C. A., Bae, Y., Seethamraju, R., & Kuehn, D. P. (2010). Faster dynamic imaging of speech with field inhomogeneity corrected spiral fast low angle shot (FLASH) at 3 T. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 32, 1228–1237. [Article] [PubMed]
Sutton, B. P., Conway, C. A., Bae, Y., Seethamraju, R., & Kuehn, D. P. (2010). Faster dynamic imaging of speech with field inhomogeneity corrected spiral fast low angle shot (FLASH) at 3 T. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 32, 1228–1237. [Article] [PubMed]×
Zawadski, P. A., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/. Phonetica, 37, 253–266. [Article] [PubMed]
Zawadski, P. A., & Kuehn, D. P. (1980). A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/. Phonetica, 37, 253–266. [Article] [PubMed]×
Zemlin, W. R. (1998). Speech and hearing science: Anatomy and Physiology (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Zemlin, W. R. (1998). Speech and hearing science: Anatomy and Physiology (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.×
Appendix 1
Recent MRI research publications of Kuehn and colleagues. (See Reference List for full citations)
Figure 1.

Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.

 Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.
Figure 1.

Instrumentation for Studying Speech Function.

×
Table 1. MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.×
Field of view 24 X 24 X 5 cm
Spatial resolution 2 X 2 X 5 mm
Temporal resolution 166 frames per second for full 3D vocal tract scan
Alignment of audio recording in the scanner Fiber-optic noise cancelling microphone
Capacity ~100,000 3D volumes of images acquired in 10 minutes
Motion tracking Automatic for interpretation of large datasets
Table 1. MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
MRI State-of-the-Art Parameters at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.×
Field of view 24 X 24 X 5 cm
Spatial resolution 2 X 2 X 5 mm
Temporal resolution 166 frames per second for full 3D vocal tract scan
Alignment of audio recording in the scanner Fiber-optic noise cancelling microphone
Capacity ~100,000 3D volumes of images acquired in 10 minutes
Motion tracking Automatic for interpretation of large datasets
×
We've Changed Our Publication Model...
The 19 individual SIG Perspectives publications have been relaunched as the new, all-in-one Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups.