The Five Systems of Dysphagia: MCI to the AD Spectrum of Disorders In order to swallow safely and effectively, there are five bodily systems that must work in coordination: Muscular, Respiratory, Neurological, Cognitive, and Gastrointestinal. Previously, these systems were established as the Five Systems of Dysphagia (5SysDys). Additionally, there exists an array of diseases/disorders that are linked to the development of Alzheimer's ... Article
Article  |   March 31, 2016
The Five Systems of Dysphagia: MCI to the AD Spectrum of Disorders
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jeanna Winchester
    Dysphagia Management Systems LLC, Sarasota, FL
    Department of General Sciences, Concorde Career Institute, Orlando, FL
    Department of Health Sciences, International University of the Health Sciences, Basseterre St. Kitts, West Indies
  • Carol G. Winchester
    Dysphagia Management Systems LLC, Sarasota FL
  • Disclosures: Financial: Jeanna Winchester and Carol G. Winchester have no relevant financial interests to disclose.
    Disclosures: Financial: Jeanna Winchester and Carol G. Winchester have no relevant financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Jeanna Winchester and Carol G. Winchester have no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.
    Nonfinancial: Jeanna Winchester and Carol G. Winchester have no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose.×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Special Populations / Older Adults & Aging / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Part 1
Article   |   March 31, 2016
The Five Systems of Dysphagia: MCI to the AD Spectrum of Disorders
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, March 2016, Vol. 1, 37-52. doi:10.1044/persp1.SIG15.37
History: Received November 3, 2015 , Revised January 5, 2016 , Accepted February 15, 2016
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, March 2016, Vol. 1, 37-52. doi:10.1044/persp1.SIG15.37
History: Received November 3, 2015; Revised January 5, 2016; Accepted February 15, 2016

In order to swallow safely and effectively, there are five bodily systems that must work in coordination: Muscular, Respiratory, Neurological, Cognitive, and Gastrointestinal. Previously, these systems were established as the Five Systems of Dysphagia (5SysDys). Additionally, there exists an array of diseases/disorders that are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease, and the current perspective proposes that these diseases/disorders can be referred to as the Alzheimer's Spectrum of Disorders (AD Spectrum). The current perspective proposes that the breakdown of the 5SysDys among patients suffering from the AD Spectrum is observable at the amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) stage. Further, this perspective elucidates this relationship and distinguishes among the AD Spectrum, as well as proposes, for the first time in the literature, what types of 5SysDys breakdown is observable at the aMCI stage; aMCI is subdivided into the single and multiple domain diagnoses (SDaMCI & MDaMCI, respectively). We propose literature-driven conclusions and illustrate the importance of considering effective Dysphagia Management in the aMCI and AD Spectrum populations.

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